Tuesday, February 15, 2011

North Central Europe

North Central Europe is considered the "Democratic Corporatist" model by Hallin & Mancini.
The largest region, it includes the most diversity in language but are all Germanic based
Scandinavia (Norway, Sweden, Denmark, also Finland), Germany, Austria, Switzerland, Belgium and the Netherlands
Unified by Protestant Reformation
There is a high degree of political parallelism and commercial press
Tradition of press freedom, especially in Sweden, p. 147
Trade relations facilitated press expansion

German Martin Luther in early 1500’s and French theologian John Calvin in Switzerland in the mid to late 1500’s

The early development of literacy in Northern Europe was a result of the principle that “every person should learn to read and see with their own own eyes what God bids and commands in his Holy Word.” The result was overall higher education in the northern countries. Guttenberg is also a factor here as “Protestants and printers had more in common than Catholics and printers.” The protestants used religious propaganda and debates of reason that created segmented pluralism.

There are some examples of polarized pluralism in Northern Europe, such as Germany during the Weimar period through World War II.

The segmented pluralism of Northern countries resulted in subcultures. Those subcultures may be faith based or language based. Both Switzerland and Belgium have sub-communities under one nation. The press was essential to unite these subcultures.

Point to consider, p. 156
Political parallelism…has a number of dimensions. It can be manifested in the ownership of media; in the affiliation of journalists, owners and managers; in readership patterns and in media content. In these areas it has been strong historically in the Democratic Corporatist countries.

There were people in the north with “dual objectives” to influence opinion and make money.One way to reach a larger audience is by being an “omnibus” media, meaning trying to reach the widest audience. The Democratic Corporatism grew through bargaining and considering capital, labor and agrarian interests.

Is it possible for the press to “bargain” interests? Can you name American media that please all or most of the people?

Germany's Christian Democratic Party

Pluralism is guaranteed by making sure that diverse social forces are included in the government.
External pluralism is when separate broadcasting companies represent different social groups.
Internal pluralism is when broadcasting corporations represent diversity from within.
The German system represents the political and social diversity of people. In the US, diversity is most often represented is in social interests and leisure activities.

Professional trends
There is an early and strong sense of professionalism.
The Nordic countries, especially Sweden, tend toward a professional civic model of an institution serving society, like the BBC.

The first unions of the press were in Scandinavia and oldest press club in Austria.
Germany and Sweden had low levels of change from editors
In Norway, editors report having a high level of autonomy
Unlike the the Southern countries that emphasize commentary, in the North, selection and emphasis reveal the party affiliation. p, 183
Unlike Southern countries, there is less of an urban-rural split except in Austria, p. 187.

On page 191, the author explains that “Democratic corporatism,” involves bargaining with groups to reach consensus. It means “political difference with political cooperation.”

North Central Europe is recognized by co-existing contradictions
-political parallelism
-press freedom
-state intervention

No comments:

Post a Comment